Non-Invasive Tests

Ankle-Arm Blood Pressure

ANKLE-BRACHIAL INDEX
Phenotype Heritability Estimate PubMed Reference
Ankle-brachial index, Offspring exam 6 0.21 PMID: 16928729
 

Bone Related

BONE DENSITY AND ULTRASOUND
Phenotype Heritability Estimate PubMed Reference
femoral neck BMD 0.52±0.05 PMID: 15003802
lumbar spine BMD 0.56±0.07
Calcaneal BUA 0.50±0.07 PMID: 17903296
Calcaneal SOS 0.37±0.06
 
HIP GEOMETRY
Phenotype Heritability Estimate PubMed Reference
NSA, neck-shaft angle 0.28±0.06** PMID: 17079199
FNL, femoral neck length 0.40±0.05
narrowest neck (NN)
subperiosteal width, WID
0.49±0.06 PMID: 17903296
NN CSA, cross-sectional area 0.42±0.06
NN Z, section modulus 0.40±0.06
Shaft WID 0.63±0.05
Shaft CSA 0.44±0.06
Shaft Z 0.56±0.06
 
METACARPAL GEOMETRY
Phenotype Heritability Estimate PubMed Reference
Metacarpal length 0.82±0.04 PMID: 18449921
Metacarpal width 0.68±0.05
Metacarpal cortical index (MCI) 0.61±0.05
Metacarpal cortical thickness (MCT) 0.51±0.05
Metacarpal Section Modulus (MZ) 0.56±0.05
 

Pulmonary Function

PULMONARY AND SLEEP WORKING GROUP
Phenotype Heritability Estimate PubMed Reference
FEV1 (mean across 2 exams) 35% PMID: 11897646
FVC (mean across 2 exams) 49% PMID: 11897646
FEV1/FVC ratio (mean across 2 exams) 26% PMID: 11897646
Change in FEV1 5% PMID: 11719305
Change in FVC 18% PMID: 11719305
Change in FEV1/FVC ratio 13% PMID: 11719305
Smokers only change in FEV1 18% PMID: 11719305
Smokers only change in FVC 39% PMID: 11719305
Smokers only change in FEV1/FVC 14% PMID: 11719305
% predicted FEV1 36% PMID: 17903307
% predicted FVC 45% PMID: 17903307
% predicted FEV1/FVC 29% PMID: 17903307
% predicted FEF25-75 40% PMID: 17903307
% predicted FEF/FVC 41% PMID: 17903307
Slope FEV1 10% PMID: 17903307
Slope FEF25-75 20% PMID: 17903307
Epworth Sleepiness Scale score 29% PMID: 17903308
Usual bedtime 22% PMID: 17903308
Usual sleep duration 17% PMID: 17903308
 

Vascular

VASCULAR FUNCTION
Phenotype Heritability Estimate PubMed Reference Genome-wide association studies
Age- and sex- adjusted Multivariable- adjusted
Brachial artery diameter, baseline 25%9 to 33%10 PMID: 14769683
PMID: 17903301
PMID: 17903301
Brachial artery flow velocity, baseline 32%9 PMID: 17903301 PMID: 17903301
Flow-mediated dilation, % 14%10 to 19%9 PMID: 14769683
PMID: 17903301
PMID: 17903301
Brachial artery hyperemic flow velocity 6%9 PMID: 17903301 PMID: 17903301